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An Independent Queensland Regional & Rural 

On-Line Publication

(Cairns... Far North Queensland)


Thank you for visiting my on-line office.

I appreciate your interest in the issues that effect not only Queenslanders, but all Australians.

Please let me hear from you about your views on the issues that matter to your Family, your Community and your State.


Selwyn Johnston



One person, with the support of the community, can make a difference





Australia's Constitution

Foreign Ownership

Next Federal Election

Federal Election Timetable

Earliest and latest dates for the next federal election

What is a Double Dissolution?

Senate - Counting the votes

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The Australian Constitution

The Australian Constitution belongs to the people - not to governments, and certainly not to political parties. While the Crown heads all of our great institutions of state, no politician can usurp power. The Crown is the ultimate guarantee of all our freedoms. We are already an independent sovereign Nation, both legally and constitutionally.

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Are you prepared to take the risk and accept the consequences of an ill-defined and ill-conceived republic?

Don't you believe the government should be more concerned with Unemployment, Health, Education, Aged Care, Tax Reform, Tariff Protection, Judiciary Powers, Citizens Initiated Referenda, Immigration and Foreign Ownership, just to name a few?

Conclusion - In the final analyse, it will be by a majority of the Australian People that decides the outcome, at the ballot box. (... see Section 128 of the Australian Constitution) This decision must not be taken lightly, as it will determine Australia's future.

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download.gif (28196 bytes)    The Australian Constitution

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Foreign Ownership

The reality of foreign ownership by multi-national companies operating in Australia paying little or no tax, is one of the inevitable results of the foreign take-over of Australian companies.

It ought to determine the approach that is taken by Australian officials in the negotiations on the Multilateral Agreement on Investment. This is part of the same structures as the:

General Agreement on Trade in Services

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

World Trade Organisation

Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation Forum

and the rest of the lame duck policies in Australia's foreign trade stable, into which we have been dragged by our Governments determination to go along with the International Monetary Fund.

The Multilateral Agreement on Investment proposes that every member of the World Trade Organisation (which includes Australia) must accord to foreign companies full rights to establish themselves in all sectors of the economy of that Country. Additionally, the so-called host country, "Australia", is required to adjust its domestic laws - and, if necessary, to repeal any existing laws and policies - that may favour local industries at the expense of the foreign companies. This means that any significant local company in Australia will have an axe over its head.

Since the Australian Taxation Office has admitted that it cannot effectively collect taxes from multinationals, (see Tax Reforms) the Australian companies that will be taken over by them will effectively be, free from tax.

The Federal Government must be "out of its mind" to even consider such advantages to multinational companies over Australian companies.

There must be immediate audit of the Foreign Investment Review Board for allowing an alleged 90% of Corporate Australia being foreign owned. A full review of The Foreign Acquisitions and Takeovers Act - 1975 is imperative to eliminate current areas subject to abuse and which are contrary to the national interest.

Australia's wealth MUST be re-invested in Australia.

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Foreign Ownership



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Counting the votes for the Senate

The Senate count is more complicated than for the House of Representatives, as there are 6 Senators (Queensland) elected at a half-election, and 12 Senators (Queensland) elected as a result of a double dissolution.

To be elected to the Senate, a candidate needs to gain a quota of the total formal votes. The quota is calculated by dividing the total number of formal ballot papers by one more than the number of Senators to be elected, and adding '1' to the result (ignoring the remainder).

Total formal votes

_________________ + 1 = Quota required

Number of Senators + 1

Counting the first preference votes is done the same way as for the House of Representatives election: the papers are sorted according to which candidate has received the number '1' preference on each ballot paper. Candidates who receive a quota, or more, of these first preferences are elected immediately.

Any surplus votes these elected candidates receive (i.e. votes in excess of the quota required) are transferred to the candidates who were the second choice of voters. However, they are transferred at a reduced value. Because it is not possible to determine which votes actually elected the candidate and which votes are surplus, all the elected candidates ballot papers are transferred at the reduced rate.

The reduced value of surplus votes is determined by dividing the surplus by the total number of votes the elected candidate received.

Candidate's surplus votes

___________________ = Reduced value of each surplus vote

Candidate's total votes

As a result of this process of transferring surplus votes, other candidates may be elected. If, however, all surplus votes from elected candidates are transferred and there are still some unfilled positions, further counting is undertaken.

Starting with the lowest scoring candidate, unelected candidates are excluded from the count and their ballot papers are distributed to the remaining candidates to whom the voters have given their preferences. When a candidate gains a quota following the distribution, he or she is elected. The above process continues until all Senate positions are filled.

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Written and Authorised by Selwyn Johnston, Cairns FNQ 4870